Contents

Page

Stephen F. McCool Wilderness Within the Context of Larger Social and Biophysical Systems 1

David N. Cole

1. Overviews 3

John B. Loomis Economic Values of Wilderness Recreation and Passive Use:

What We Think We Know at the Beginning of the 21st Century 5

Gundars Rudzitis The Impact of Wilderness and Other Wildlands on Local Economies

Rebecca Johnson and Regional Development Trends 14

Peter S. White Disturbance, Scale, and Boundary in Wilderness Management 27

Jonathan Harrod
Joan L. Walker
Anke Jentsch

2. Wilderness Meanings and Debates 43

Chad P. Dawson The Influence of the Adirondacks on the Wilderness Preservation

Ed Zahniser Contributions of Robert Marshall and Howard Zahniser 45

Karen M. Fox Navigating Confluences: Revisiting the Meaning of "Wilderness

Experience" 49

Paul A. Gray An Ecosystem Approach to Management: A Context for

Robert J. Davidson Wilderness Protection 59

Dayle C. Hardy-Short Science, Economics, and Rhetoric: Environmental Advocacy and

C. Brant Short the Wolf Reintroduction Debate, 1987-1999 65

Roger W. Kaye The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: An Exploration of the

Meanings Embodied in America's Last Great Wilderness 73

Thomas A. More How Valid are Future Generations' Arguments for Preserving

James R. Averill Wilderness? 81

Thomas H. Stevens

3. Wilderness Within Larger Ecosystems 87

Gregory Aplet Indicators of Wildness: Using Attributes of the Land to

Janice Thomson Assess the Context of Wilderness 89

Mark Wilbert

Mike Bader Wilderness-Based Ecosystem Protection in the Northern

Rocky Mountains of the United States 99

Robert J. Davidson State-of-the-Wilderness Reporting in Ontario: Models,

Paul A. Gray Tools and Techniques 111

Sheila Boyd
George S. Cordiner


Steffen Fritz New GIS Approaches to Wild Land Mapping in Europe 120

Steve Carver

Linda See

J. C. Haney Gauging the Ecological Capacity of Southern Appalachian Reserves:

M. Wilbert Does Wilderness Matter? 128

C. De Grood

D. S. Lee
J. Thomson

Nathaniel P. Hitt An Evaluation of Wilderness and Aquatic Biointegrity in Western

Christopher A. Frissell Montana 138

Laskar Muqsudur Rahman The Sundarbans: A Unique Wilderness of the World 143

Vinod Sasidharan Climatic Change and Wildland Recreation: Examining the Changing

Patterns of Wilderness Recreation in Response to the Effects

of Global Climate Change and the El Nino Phenomenon 149

Janice L. Thomson Assessing Interconnections Between Wilderness and Adjacent Lands:

Dawn A. Hartley The Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Utah 153

Gregory H. Aplet

Peter A. Morton

4. Social, Economic, and Policy Issues 167

Carolyn Alkire Funding Strategies for Wilderness Management 169

Craig W. Allin The Triumph of Politics Over Wilderness Science 180

Ralf Buckley Tourism and Wilderness: Dancing With the Messy Monster 186

Ralf Buckley Wilderness in Australia: What's Happening in a World Context 190

Brian Czech Economic Growth, Ecological Economics, and Wilderness Preservation 194

J. Mark Fly Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Wilderness in the Southern

Robert Emmet Jones Appalachian Ecoregion 201

H. Ken Cordell

Ville Hallikainen The Finnish "Social Wilderness" 205

J. E. S. Higham Wilderness Perception Scaling in New Zealand: An Analysis of

G. W. Kearsley Wilderness Perceptions Held by Users, Non-users and

A. D. Kliskey International Visitors 218

David M. Johns Biological Science in Conservation 223

Paul A. Lorah Population Growth, Economic Security, and Cultural Change in

Wilderness Counties 230

Pete Morton Wildland Economics: Theory and Practice 238

M. A. Nie A Political Cultural Map to Future Wilderness, Monument and

Park Designation 251


Spencer Phillips Windfalls for Wilderness: Land Protection and Land Value in the

Green Mountains 258

Brijesh Thapa The Relationship Between Debt-for-Nature Swaps and Protected

Area Tourism: A Plausible Strategy for Developing Countries 268

Bryan K. Walton Southern by the Grace of God: Wilderness Framing in the

Heart of Dixie 273

5. Dialogue Session Summaries 279

Douglas W. Hodgins From Confrontation to Conservation: The Banff National Park

Jeffrey E. Green Experience 281

Gail Harrison

Jillian Roulet


Dan McDonald Tribal Wilderness Research Needs and Issues in the United States

Tom McDonald and Canada 290

Leo McAvoy

R. McGreggor Cawley Wilderness, Natural Areas, and Ecological Reserves: Thoughts on

the Politics of the Big Outside 295

Laurie Yung Meaningful Community Involvement in Protected Area Issues:

A Dialogue Session 301