The United States Congress designated the Pelican Island Wilderness (map
) in 1970 and it now has a total of 6 acres
(5.5 acres, technically).
All of this wilderness is located in Florida
and is managed by the Fish and Wildlife Service.
President Theodore Roosevelt set aside tiny Pelican Island as a bird haven on March 14, 1903, ordering the first federal land dedication to wildlife and thus creating the National Wildlife Refuge System. Pelican Island Wilderness and National Wildlife Refuge is comprised primarily of water in the wide lagoon of the Indian River. Human development near the shoreline currently threatens the fragile but highly productive waters. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is trying to acquire an insulating buffer zone along the eastern boundary.
Fifteen threatened and endangered species live here, including manatees. A huge natural supply of fish provide food for wading birds that nest in the area. Other nesting birds crowded onto the island include brown pelicans, common egrets, snowy egrets, reddish egrets, great blue herons, little blue herons, tricolored herons, black-crowned night herons, white ibis, glossy ibis, double-crested cormorants, anhingas, and oyster catchers. This Wilderness is one of the smallest units in the National Wilderness Preservation System and is closed to the public.