Stephen F. McCool Wilderness as a Place for Scientific Inquiry 1

David N. Cole

1. Overviews 3

Norman L. Christensen, Jr. The Evolving Role of Science in Wilderness to Our Understanding

of Ecosystems and Landscapes 5

Alan Ewert The Effects of Wilderness Settings on Organized Groups:

Leo McAvoy A State-of-Knowledge Paper 13

Lisa J. Graumlich Global Change in Wilderness Areas: Disentangling Natural

and Anthropogenic Changes 27

Joseph W. Roggenbuck Benefits of Nonfacilitated Uses of Wilderness 33

B. L Driver

R. Gerald Wright The Evolution of Wilderness Wildlife Research in North America 50

Lisa K. Garrett

2. Wilderness and Ecosystems 61

Edward E. Berg Studies in the Wilderness Areas of the Kenai National Wildlife

Refuge: Fire, Bark Beetles, Human Development and

Climate Change 63

Matthew L. Brooks Does Protection of Desert Tortoise Habitat Generate Other

Ecological Benefits in the Mojave Desert? 68

Daniel B. Fagre Ecosystem Dynamics and Disturbance in Mountain Wildernesses:

David L. Peterson Assessing Vulnerability of Natural Resources to Change 74

Charles G. Johnson, Jr. Establishing Benchmark Monitoring Points in Wilderness:

Successes and Challenges 82

Robert E. Keane The Importance of Wilderness to Whitebark Pine Research

and Management 84

Kenneth D. Kimball Alpine Vegetation Communities and the Alpine-Treeline

Douglas M. Weihrauch Ecotone Boundary in New England as Biomonitors for

Climate Change 93

Cynthia S. Loftin Effects of the Suwannee River Sill on the Hydrology of the

Sara B. Aicher Okefenokee Swamp: Application of Research Results in

Wiley M. Kitchens the Environmental Assessment Process 102

Aníbal Pauchard A Multiscale Method for Assessing Vegetation Baseline of

Eduardo Ugarte Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Protected

Jaime Millán Areas of Chile 111

James M. Peek Shrub-Steppe Vegetation Trend, Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho 117

William H. Russell Edge Effects and the Effective Size of Old-Growth Coast

Joe R. McBride Redwood Preserves 128

Ky Carnell

Susan E. Shideler Monitoring Reproduction and Contraception in Free Ranging

Wildlife: Tule Elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) at Point

Reyes National Seashore 137

Russell F. Thurow Dynamics of Chinook Salmon Populations Within Idaho's Frank

Church Wilderness: Implications for Persistence 143

3. Wilderness and the Past 153

Christopher V. Barns Paleontological Excavations in Designated Wilderness:

Theory and Practice 155

Anthony R. Fiorillo The Ancient Environment of the Beartooth Butte Formation

(Devonian) in Wyoming and Montana: Combining

Paleontological Inquiry With Federal Management Needs 160

Robert L. Sanford, Jr. Holocene Rain-Forest Wilderness: A Neotropical Perspective on

Sally P. Horn Humans as an Exotic, Invasive Species 168

4. Wilderness and People 175

Laura M. Fredrickson Wilderness: A Place for Ethical Inquiry 177

Baylor L. Johnson

Lilian Jonas Encountering Heidi: Meeting Others as a Central Aspect of the

William Stewart River Experience 181

Kevin Larkin

Angelina M. Kendra Is There a Shared Idea of "Wilderness" Among Outdoor

Troy E. Hall Recreationists? Evidence From Three Recreation Sites 188

Julia Dawn Parker In Their Own Words: Wilderness Values of Outfitter/Guides 196

Bill Avant

Todd Paxton Social Psychological Benefits of a Wilderness Adventure Program 202

Leo McAvoy

Keith C. Russell How Wilderness Therapy Works: An Examination of the

John C. Hendee Wilderness Therapy Process to Treat Adolescents With

Dianne Phillips-Miller Behavioral Problems and Addictions 207

Erin K. Sharpe Interferences in Place Attachment: Implications for Wilderness 218

Alan W. Ewert

Dave D. White Primal Hypotheses: The Relationship Between Naturalness,

John C. Hendee Solitude, and the Wilderness Experience Benefits of

Development of Self, Development of Community, and

Spiritual Development 223

5. Management of Science in Wilderness 229

Gordon R. Cessford Identifying Research Needs for Improved Management of

Social Impacts in Wilderness Recreation 231

Peter Landres A Framework for Evaluating Proposals for Scientific

Activities in Wilderness 239

Jack G. Oelfke Wolf Research in the Isle Royale Wilderness: Do the Ends

Rolf O. Peterson Justify the Means? 246

John A. Vucetich

Leah M. Vucetich

David J. Parsons The Challenge of Scientific Activities in Wilderness 252

Jim Walters Research Protocols in National Park Service Wilderness 258

Vita Wright The Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute: A National

Wilderness Research Program in Support of Wilderness

Management 260

6. Dialogue Session Summary 269

Diana L. Six Wilderness for Science: Pros and Cons of Using Wilderness

Paul Alaback Areas for Biological Research 271

Robert A. Winfree

Della Snyder

Anne Hagele