David N. Cole Wilderness Visitors, Experiences, and Visitor Management 1

Stephen F. McCool

1. Overviews 3

Edwin E. Krumpe The Role of Science in Wilderness Planning—A State-

of-Knowledge Review 5

Robert E. Manning Defining and Managing the Quality of Wilderness

David W. Lime Recreation Experiences 13

Alan E. Watson Wilderness Use in the Year 2000: Societal Changes That

Influence Human Relationships With Wilderness 53

2. Wilderness Visitors 61

Jeffrey R. Behan How do Visitor Density and Anthropogenic Change in

Merton T. Richards Frontcountry Wilderness Settings Affect Recreation Benefits? 63

Martha E. Lee

Gordon R. Cessford Noise Impact Issues on the Great Walks of New Zealand 69

Neal A. Christensen Leave-No-Trace Practices: Behaviors and Preferences of

David N. Cole Wilderness Visitors Regarding Use of Cookstoves and

Camping Away From Lakes 77

Mae A. Davenport Examining Winter Visitor Use in Yellowstone National Park 86

Wayne A. Freimund
William T. Borrie
Robert E. Manning
William A. Valliere
Benjamin Wang

Chad P. Dawson Measures of Wilderness Trip Satisfaction and User

Alan E. Watson Perceptions of Crowding 93

Randy Gimblett An Individual-Based Modeling Approach to Simulating Recreation

Terry Daniel Use in Wilderness Settings 99

Michael J. Meitner

Alan R. Graefe Relationships Between Trip Motivations and Selected

Brijesh Thapa Variables Among Allegheny National Forest Visitors 107

John J. Confer

James D. Absher

Troy Hall An Expanded Perspective on Displacement: A Longitudinal

David Cole Study of Visitors to Two Wildernesses in the Cascade

Mountains of Oregon 113

Karen S. Hockett Visitors' Knowledge of Federal Wilderness: Implications for

Troy E. Hall Wilderness User Research and Management 122

Amy F. Hoss Meanings and Implications of Acceptability Judgments

Mark W. Brunson for Wilderness Use Impacts 128

Kristopher J. Lah Developing Social Standards for Wilderness Encounters in

Mount Rainier National Park: Manager-Defined Versus

Visitor-Defined Standards 134

Steven R. Martin Donations as an Alternative to Wilderness User Fees—The Case

of the Desolation Wilderness 142

Meghan K. Papenfuse The Rise of the Day Visitor in Wilderness: Should Managers

Joseph W. Roggenbuck be Concerned? 148

Troy E. Hall

Chad D. Pierskalla Examining Leisure Event Opportunities of Isle Royale National Park:

Dorothy H. Anderson Bridging the Gap Between Social Process and Spatial Form 155

David W. Lime

Ingrid Schneider Response to Conflict Among Wilderness Visitors 160

Ingrid Schneider Perceptions of and Preferences for Fee Program Dollar

Christopher LaPointe Utilization Among Wilderness Visitors 164

Sharon Stievater

Rudy Schuster Effective Coping Strategies in Stressful Outdoor Recreation

William Hammitt Situations: Conflict on the Ocoee River 167

Paul Twardock Recreational Kayak Visitor Use, Distribution, and Financial

Christopher Monz Value of Beaches in Western Prince William Sound, Alaska,

Between 1987 and 1998 175

Cynthia A. Warzecha Visitors' Relationship to the Resource: Comparing Place

David W. Lime Attachment in Wildland and Developed Settings 181

Jerrilyn L. Thompson

3. Information and Education 185

Chuck Burgess Wilderness on the Internet: Identifying Wilderness

Information Domains 187

John J. Confer Magazines as Wilderness Information Sources: Assessing

Andrew J. Mowen Users' General Wilderness Knowledge and Specific

Alan R. Graefe Leave No Trace Knowledge 193

James D. Absher

James A. Harding Factors That Limit Compliance With Low-Impact Recommendations 198

William T. Borrie
David N. Cole

William W. Hendricks Attitudes Toward Roles in a Wilderness Education Program 203

Stephen F. McCool Communicating Minimum Impact Behavior With Trailside Bulletin

David N. Cole Boards: Visitor Characteristics Associated With Effectiveness 208

Roy Ramthun Information Collection Styles of Wilderness Users: A Market

Lynda Kersey Segmentation Approach 217

Jim Rogers

William Stewart Preparing for a Day Hike at Grand Canyon: What Information

David Cole Is Useful? 221

Robert Manning
William Valliere
Jonathan Taylor
Martha Lee

4. Visitor Management 227

Joe L. Ashor Monitoring Social Indicators in the Bear Trap Canyon

Wilderness 1988_1998 229

John B. Davis Standards of Quality for River Use Within the Fort Niobrara

Mark Lindvall Wilderness Area 232

Linda Merigliano Keeping Wilderness Wild: Increasing Effectiveness With

Bryan Smith Limited Resources 236

John A. Sacklin Winter Visitor Use Planning in Yellowstone and Grand Teton

Kristin L. Legg National Parks 243

M. Sarah Creachbaum
Clifford L. Hawkes
George Helfrich

5. Dialogue Session Summaries 251

Kari Gunderson Wilderness Education: An Updated Review of the Literature

Christopher V. Barns and New Directions for Research and Practice 253

William W. Hendricks

Leo H. McAvoy

John L. Heywood Current Approaches to Norms Research 260

Christopher Monz Wilderness Party Size Regulations: Implications for Management

Joseph Roggenbuck and a Decisionmaking Framework 265

David Cole
Richard Brame
Andrew Yoder