David N. Cole Wilderness Ecosystems, Threats, and Management 1

Stephen F. McCool

1. Overviews 3

James K. Agee Wilderness Fire Science: A State of Knowledge Review 5

Yu-Fai Leung Recreation Impacts and Management in Wilderness:

Jeffrey L. Marion A State-of-Knowledge Review 23

Mitchel P. McClaran Improving Livestock Management in Wilderness 49

John M. Randall Improving Management of Nonnative Invasive Plants in

Wilderness and Other Natural Areas 64

K. A. Tonnessen Protecting Wilderness Air Quality in the United States 74

2. Recreation Impacts and Management 97

L. Alessa Effects of Soil Compaction on Root and Root Hair Morphology:

C. G. Earnhart Implications for Campsite Rehabilitation 99

Laurel Boyers Twenty-Eight Years of Wilderness Campsite Monitoring in

Mark Fincher Yosemite National Park 105

Jan van Wagtendonk

Tracy A. Farrell Camping Impact Management at Isle Royale National Park:

Jeffrey L. Marion An Evaluation of Visitor Activity Containment Policies

From the Perspective of Social Conditions 110

Anna M. T. Gajda Managing Coastal Recreation Impacts and Visitor Experience

Judson Brown Using GIS 115

Grant Peregoodoff

Patrick Bartier

Ernest Hartley Thirty-Year Monitoring of Subalpine Meadow Vegetation

Following a 1967 Trampling Experiment at Logan Pass,

Glacier National Park, Montana 124

Mark C. Jewell Assessing Soil Erosion on Trails: A Comparison of Techniques 133

William E. Hammitt

Paul R. Lachapelle Sanitation in Wilderness: Balancing Minimum Tool Policies

and Wilderness Values 141

Yu-Fai Leung Wilderness Campsite Conditions Under an Unregulated

Jeffrey L. Marion Camping Policy: An Eastern Example 148

Christopher A. Monz The Consequences of Trampling Disturbance in Two Vegetation

Tami Pokorny Types at the Wyoming Nature Conservancy's Sweetwater River

Jerry Freilich Project Area 153

Sharon Kehoe
Dayna Ayers-Baumeister

P. E. Moore Meadow Response to Pack Stock Grazing in the Yosemite

D. N. Cole Wilderness: Integrating Research and Management 160

J. W. van Wagtendonk

M. P. McClaran
N. McDougald

Regina M. Rochefort Human Impact Surveys in Mount Rainier National Park: Past,

Darin D. Swinney Present and Future 165

Akemi Yoda Erosion of Mountain Hiking Trail Over a Seven-year Period in

Teiji Watanabe Daisetsuzan National Park, Central Hokkaido, Japan 172

3. Wilderness Restoration 179

David N. Cole Soil Amendments and Planting Techniques: Campsite Restoration

David R. Spildie in the Eagle Cap Wilderness, Oregon 181

Sean Eagan Restoration of Multiple-Rut Trails in the Tuolumne Meadows of

Peter Newman Yosemite National Park 188

Susan Fritzke

Louise Johnson

Joseph P. Flood The Influence of Wilderness Restoration Programs on Visitor

Leo H. McAvoy Experience and Visitor Opinions of Managers 193

David R. Spildie Effectiveness of a Confinement Strategy in Reducing Pack Stock

David N. Cole Impacts at Campsites in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Idaho 199

Sarah C. Walker

Charisse A. Sydoriak Would Ecological Landscape Restoration Make the Bandelier

Craig D. Allen Wilderness More or Less of a Wilderness? 209

Brian F. Jacobs

Catherine Zabinski Understanding the Factors That Limit Restoration Success on

David Cole a Recreation-Impacted Subalpine Site 216

4. Wilderness Fire and Management 223

Stephen F. Arno Mixed-Severity Fire Regimes in the Northern Rocky Mountains:

David J. Parsons Consequences of Fire Exclusion and Options for the Future 225

Robert E. Keane

Anthony C. Caprio Returning Fire to the Mountains: Can We Successfully Restore

David M. Graber the Ecological Role of Pre-Euroamerican Fire Regimes to

the Sierra Nevada? 233

Peter Z. Fulé Continuing Fire Regimes in Remote Forests of Grand Canyon

Thomas A. Heinlein National Park 242

W. Wallace Covington

Margaret M. Moore

Thomas A. Heinlein Development of Ecological Restoration Experiments in Fire

W. Wallace Covington Adapted Forests at Grand Canyon National Park 249

Peter Z. Fulé

Margaret M. Moore
Hiram B. Smith

Jon E. Keeley Restoring Natural Fire Regimes to the Sierra Nevada in an Era of

Nathan L. Stephenson Global Change 255

MaryBeth Keifer Prescribed Fire as the Minimum Tool for Wilderness Forest and

Nathan L. Stephenson Fire Regime Restoration: A Case Study From the Sierra

Jeff Manley Nevada, California 266

Kurt F. Kipfmueller Fire-Climate Interactions in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Area 270

Thomas W. Swetnam

David J. Parsons The Challenge of Restoring Natural Fire to Wilderness 276

Matthew Rollins Twentieth-Century Fire Patterns in the Selway-Bitterroot

Tom Swetnam Wilderness Area, Idaho/Montana and the Gila/Aldo Leopold

Penelope Morgan Wilderness Complex, New Mexico 283

G.Thomas Zimmerman The Federal Wildland Fire Policy: Opportunities for Wilderness

David L. Bunnell Fire Management 288

5. Air, Water, and Exotic Species 299

Paul Stephen Corn Fish Stocking in Protected Areas: Summary of a Workshop 301

Roland A. Knapp

L. Bruce Hill Visitor Perceptions and Valuation of Visibility in the Great Gulf

Wendy Harper Wilderness, New Hampshire 304

John M. Halstead

Thomas H. Stevens

Ina Porras
Kenneth D. Kimball

R. A. Knapp Effects of Nonnative Fishes on Wilderness Lake Ecosystems in

K. R. Matthews the Sierra Nevada and Recommendations for Reducing Impacts 312

Marilyn Marler A Survey of Exotic Plants in Federal Wilderness Areas 318

David S. Pilliod Evaluating Effects of Fish Stocking on Amphibian Populations

Charles R. Peterson in Wilderness Lakes 328

Ellen M. Porter Air Quality Management in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Wilderness Areas 336

6. Wilderness Management 341

Shannon S. Meyer Legislative Interpretation as a Guiding Tool for Wilderness

Management 343

S. Thomas Olliff Seeking a Scientific Approach to Backcountry Management in

Sue Consolo Murphy Yellowstone National Park 348

Derek Petersen Grizzly Bears as a Filter for Human Use Management in

Canadian Rocky Mountain National Parks 354

Nicholas Sawyer The Development of the 1999 Management Plan for the

Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (Australia) 362

Michael J. Tranel Wilderness Management Planning in an Alaskan National Park:

Last Chance to Do It Right? 369

7. Dialogue Session Summary 375

Peter B. Landres Naturalness and Wildness: The Dilemma and Irony of Managing

Mark W. Brunson Wilderness 377

Linda Merigliano

Charisse Sydoriak

Steve Morton